Monday, December 12, 2016

ලිපි වර්ගීකරණය - Classification of Posts

"ඉංගිරිසි" බ්ලොග් අඩවියේ ලිපි ගොඩක් ලියවිලා තියෙනවා. ඒවායේ ඉංග්‍රීසි භාෂාවේ විවිධ පැතිකඩ ගැන සාකච්ඡා කෙරෙනවා. භාවිතයේ පහසුව සඳහා ලිපිවල අන්තර්ගතය අනුව ඒවා මෙසේ වර්ගීකරණය කරන්නට අදහස් කළා.

ලිපි වර්ගීකරණය 

ඉංග්‍රීසියේ ස්වභාවය – Nature of English

Why learn English

Background of English in Sri Lanka

What type of English to learn

Attitude to English

Right approach to learning English

Right reasons to learn English 

How long does it take to learn a language?

Nature of English

Variety in English

They Are at a Ceremony on a Farm in Kandy - විවිධ තැන්වලදී
Use of ‘in’, ‘at’, ‘on’

Prepositions used after some words (agree, shout, angry, sorry, happy, care, made) 

Prepositions used after some words (afraid, fear, guilty, anxious, attend, enter, meet, answer)

Using the media to improve one’s English

කාල භේදය – Tenses
Tenses: present simple & present continuous

Tenses: present perfect & present perfect continuous for ongoing actions

Tenses: past simple & past continuous, used to

Tenses: present perfect & present perfect continuous for completed actions, past perfect & past perfect continuous

Tenses: future simple, going to

Tenses: future continuous, future perfect, future perfect continuous, future sense in subordinate clauses 

Ability & inability (can, could, able to, manage to, cannot help)

Asking & granting permission (can, could, may, shall, should, permitted to, allowed to)

Probability (may, might, could)

Some uses of ‘would’

Some uses of ‘should’ (& 'ought to')

Obligation & permission (must, have to, have got to, not permitted to, not allowed to)

Use of ‘may/might/could/should/would/must… have’

Conditional sentences (if, if _ not, unless)

Conditional sentences (real & unreal)

Conditional sentences (recap)

ක්‍රියා රටා – Verb Patterns

Wishes & unreal situations (wish, if only, as if, as though, it is time, pretend, imagine, seem)

Other uses of ‘if’, omission of ‘if’, use of ‘whether’

Passive voice

Things to Be Done - කරන්න ඇති දේ
Pending tasks (to do/to be done, to write/to be written…, so that, in order that)

Likes & preferences (like, would like, prefer, would prefer, would rather)

Suggestions & wishes (would/do _ mind, had better, would prefer, would rather, suggest/insist/recommend… that, it is important/necessary… that, may)

Needs, wants, dares (need, want, need not, did not need to, need not have, dare)

Causing & permitting (make, get, have, let, allow, permit, keep)

Reported speech (indirect speech)

Infinitives & gerunds (to go/going, to stop/stopping…) after other words

Bare infinitives (keep, wash…) in some expressions

Gerunds (going, stopping…) in certain expressions

වාක්‍ය රටා – Sentence Pattern
Negative statements & questions (what, when, who, whose, where, why, how, how many…, else)

What Do You Want? - මොනවද ඕනැ?
Use of ‘what’ & ‘which’

Subordinate clauses with ‘what’, ‘who’, ‘where’, ‘when’, ‘how’, ‘why’

Uses of ‘no’, ‘none of’, ‘neither of’…

Question forms used in other senses

Use of ‘who’ & ‘whom’ (& ‘that’) in questions & relative clauses

Use of ‘that’, ‘which’, ‘in which’…, ‘with whom’…, ‘whose’, ‘when’, ‘where’ in relative clauses & other clauses

Punctuation marks

Quotation marks & punctuation

Where to use upper-case letters
Transcription of speech (gotta, gonna, wanna, helluva, gimme, lemme, gotcha…)

භාෂා සම්ප්‍රදායන් – Language Norms
Using the indefinite articles

Using the definite article

Using no article

Use of ‘every’, ‘each’, ‘all’, ‘both’, ‘either’

Different uses of ‘some’ & ‘any’ (something, anything, nothing…, else, other, another)

Referring to quantities (a little, a few, half, part, a lot, much, many…)

Comparisons (as _ as, equally, more _ than, less ­_ than, most, least, fewer _ than, fewest, half, twice, three times…)

Degrees of a quality or quantity (a little, a bit, slightly, fairly, rather, somewhat, quite, pretty, really, very, so, such, much, far, a lot, extremely, absolutely, a few, many, too, enough)
විවිධ භාවිත – Usage Differences

Today Morning or This Morning? - අපේ කාල සටහන
Time expressions for the present (now, today, these days, always, already, still, yet, never, ever…)

Let Bygones Be Bygones? - පහුගිය දේ ගැන
Time expressions for the past (ago, yesterday, last week, one day, once, earlier…)

Time expressions for the future (in, tomorrow, next week, sometime, someday, never…)

The Picture Was Hung, but the Criminal Was Hanged - මොකක්ද මේ වෙනස?
Regular & irregular verb forms (hang, lie, shine, get, prove, fit, dive, bear)

Use of ‘as’, ‘like’, ‘so’, ‘as if’, ‘as _ as’ (‘not so _ as’), ‘as for’, ‘such as’, ‘as such’, ‘as it were’, ‘so as to’ 
Uses of ‘rather’

පදවල භාවිත – Uses of Words

Different meanings of ‘just’

Different meanings of ‘get’

Uses of ‘look’, phrasal verbs

Uses of ‘kind’, ‘sort’, ‘type’

Is This a Normal, Ordinary, General or  Average Case? - සාමාන්‍යයෙන් අසාමාන්‍ය කඩ්ඩ
Differences of ‘normal’, ‘ordinary’, ‘general’, ‘average’

Differences of ‘of course’, ‘certainly’, ‘surely’, ‘in fact’, ‘actually’, ‘really’, ‘indeed’

Differences of ‘finally’, ‘at last’, ‘last’, ‘lastly’, ‘in the end’, ‘at the end’, ‘eventually’, ‘ultimately’

Use of ‘reject’, ‘refuse’, ‘decline’, ‘deny’, ‘turn down’

Further or Farther - ඉංග්‍රීසි ටැපලිලි
Commonly confused words: further/farther, between/among, alternate/alternative, effect/affect

Differences in terrible/terrific, horrible/horrific, awful/awesome, dreadful/dreaded

Commonly confused words: its/it’s, free/freely, hard/hardly, as soon as/no sooner, feel well/feel good, because/because of, loudly/aloud

Commonly confused words: simple/simplistic, nationalist/nationalistic, historic/historical, economic/economical, electric/electrical

Use of possessive forms

Use of ‘grateful’, ‘thankful’, ‘during’, ‘later’, ‘there is/are’, ‘it’, ‘too’, ‘enough’, ‘specially’, ‘especially’, ‘say’, ‘tell’

Commonly confused words: illicit/elicit, illusive/elusive, contemptuous/contemptible, continuous/continual, sensible/sensitive, comprehensive/comprehensible, involved, concerned, affected, resolve

ලංකාවේ ඉංග්‍රීසි – English in Sri Lanka
Sri Lankan vs international usage: question tags

Pronunciation of the initial S in ‘still’, ‘skill’…

 Pronunciation of the ‘O’ sounds

Sri Lankan vs international usage: pronunciation of vowel and consonant sounds, word stress

Sri Lankan vs international usage: some colloquial patterns & pronunciation of certain sounds

Stress patterns in pronunciation

Sri Lankan vs international usage: sometimes, perhaps, maybe, of course, otherwise, why not, bring, take

Sri Lankan vs international usage: small small, get down from, play out, ask from, discuss about, survive from, go behind, off

Sri Lankan vs international usage: in vain, for lies, keep/put, itself/myself…, each other/one another

Sri Lankan vs international usage: reply, refer, dispose, come, go, give, put on, wish, wear…
Ayya Also Is There, Akka Also Is There – අපේ කඩු කෑලි (තව දුරටත්)
Sri Lankan vs international usage: sentence patterns & word order (even, have/there is/there are, put, only…)

භාෂාවක් ඉගෙනීම - Learning a Language

Polyglot Luca Lampariello’s steps to learn a language

Prof. Alexander Arguelles on language-learning methodologies

Prof. Alexander Arguelles on types of language courses

Websites for learners of English

Using the website LingQ to learn English

Expressions found in the media

State of English in Sri Lanka

Switching to the English medium

ශ්‍රී ලාංකික ඉංග්‍රීසි වික්‍රම - Sri Lankans in Action

Dr. Dayan Jayathilleke & Dr. Rajiva Wijesinge at UNHCR Headquarters

Kumar Sangakkara at Lord’s

භාවිතයේ පැතිකඩ (ඉංග්‍රීසියෙන්) Aspects of Usage (in English)

Various points of language use explained in English

ඊපොත ගැන - About the Ebook

All ‘Ingirisi’ articles in a downloadable ebook

A new format of the ebook

All ‘Ingirisi’ & ‘Say It Out Loud’ articles in one ebook

 (Image credit: David Goehring)

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