Thursday, July 17, 2014

ලිපි වර්ගීකරණය - Classification of Posts

"ඉංගිරිසි" බ්ලොග් අඩවියේ ලිපි ගොඩක් ලියවිලා තියෙනවා. ඒවායේ ඉංග්‍රීසි භාෂාවේ විවිධ පැතිකඩ ගැන සාකච්ඡා කෙරෙනවා. භාවිතයේ පහසුව සඳහා ලිපිවල අන්තර්ගතය අනුව ඒවා මෙසේ වර්ගීකරණය කරන්නට අදහස් කළා.
ලිපි වර්ගීකරණය 

ඉංග්‍රීසි බස - The English Language

Why learn English

Background of English in Sri Lanka

What type of English to learn

Attitude to English

Nature of English

Right approach to learning English

Variety in English

අපේ රටේ ඉංගීසි බස - English in Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan vs international usage: question tags

Pronunciation of the initial S in ‘still’, ‘skill’…

 Pronunciation of the ‘O’ sounds

Inappropriate translations

Agreeing/disagreeing with a negative statement

Sri Lankan vs international usage: sometimes, perhaps, maybe, of course, otherwise, why not, bring, take

State of English in Sri Lanka

Expressing culture-specific concepts in English      

Sri Lankan vs international usage: small small, get down from, play out, ask from, discuss about

Sri Lankan vs international usage: in vain, for lies, keep/put, too much, itself/myself…, each other/one another

Sri Lankan vs international usage: pronunciation of vowel and consonant sounds, word stress

Sri Lankan vs international usage: sentence patterns & word order (even, have/there is/there are, put, only…) 

Sri Lankan vs international usage: some colloquial patterns & pronunciation of certain sounds

Sri Lankan vs international usage: reply, refer, dispose, come, go, give, put on…

Stress patterns in pronunciation

Switching to the English medium

Right reasons to learn English 

ක්‍රියා පද හැසිරවීම - Behaviour of Verbs
Tenses: present simple & present continuous

Tenses: present perfect & present perfect continuous for ongoing actions

Tenses: past simple & past continuous, used to

Tenses: present perfect & present perfect continuous for completed actions, past perfect & past perfect continuous

Tenses: future simple, going to

Tenses: future continuous, future perfect, future perfect continuous, future sense in subordinate clauses 

Ability & inability (can, could, able to, cannot help)

Asking & granting permission (can, could, may, shall, should)

Probability (may, might, could)

Some uses of ‘would’

Some uses of ‘should’

Obligation & permission (must, have to, have got to, permitted to, allowed to)

Use of ‘may/might/could/should/would/must… have’

Conditional sentences (if, if _ not, unless)

Wishes & unreal situations (wish, if only, as if, as though, it is time, imagine)

Other uses of ‘if’ & omission of ‘if’

Passive voice

Likes & preferences (like, would like, prefer, would prefer, would rather)

Suggestions (would/do _ mind, you had better, I would prefer, I would rather, suggest, insist, propose, recommend…)

Needs, wants, dares (need, want, need not, did not need to, need not have, dare)

Causing & permitting (make, get, have, let, allow, permit)

Reported speech (indirect speech)

Infinitives & gerunds (to go/going, to stop/stopping…) after other words

Bare infinitives (keep, wash…) in some expressions

Gerunds (going, stopping…) in certain expressions

Conditional sentences (real & unreal)

Conditional sentences (recap)

Pending tasks (to do/to be done, to write/to be written…, so that)

කාලය සම්බන්ධ යෙදුම් - Time Expressions

Time expressions for the present (now, today, these days, always, already, still, yet, never, ever…)

Let Bygones Be Bygones? - පහුගිය දේ ගැන
Time expressions for the past (ago, yesterday, last week, one day, once, earlier…)

Time expressions for the future (in, tomorrow, next week, sometime, someday, never…)

පූර්ව පද භාවිතය - Use of Articles 
Using the indefinite articles

Using the definite article

Using no article

නිපාත පද යෙදීම - Role of Prepositions

Use of ‘in’, ‘at’, ‘on’

Prepositions used after some words (agree, shout, sorry, care) 

Prepositions used after some words (afraid, fear, guilty, anxious, attend, enter, meet, answer)

ඒක වචන, බහු වචන - Singular or Plural

Singular or plural (fish, fruit, equipment, family, people, data, craft, deer, mathematics, trousers…)

Singular and plural usage

ප්‍රශ්න, නිශේධාර්ථ හා අන්තර්වාක්‍ය - Questions, Negatives & Clauses    
Use of ‘who’ & ‘whom’ (& ‘that’) in questions & relative clauses

Use of ‘that’, ‘which’, ‘in which’…, ‘with whom’…, ‘whose’, ‘when’, ‘where’ in relative clauses & other clauses

Use of ‘what’ & ‘which’

Subordinate clauses with ‘what’, ‘who’, ‘where’, ‘when’, ‘how’, ‘why’

Negative statements & questions (what, when, who, whose, where, why, how, how many…, else)

Uses of ‘no’, ‘none of’, ‘neither of’…

Question forms used in other senses

පදවල විවිධ අරුත් - Varied Meanings

Different meanings of ‘just’

Different meanings of ‘get’

Different uses of ‘some’ & ‘any’ (something, anything, nothing…, else, other, another)

Information found in a dictionary

Uses of ‘look’

Uses of ‘kind’, ‘sort’, ‘type’

Uses of ‘rather’

යෙදුම්වල අසමානතා - Differences in Usage

Differences of ‘normal’, ‘ordinary’, ‘general’, ‘average’

Referring to quantities (a little, a few, half, part, a lot, much, many…)

Use of ‘as’, ‘like’, so, ‘as if’, ‘as _ as’ (‘not so _ as’), as for, such as, as such, per se

Comparisons (as _ as, equally, more _ than, less ­_ than, most, least, fewer _ than, fewest, half, twice, three times…)

Degrees of a quality or quantity (a little, a bit, slightly, fairly, rather, somewhat, quite, pretty, really, very, so, such, much, far, a lot, extremely, absolutely, many, too, enough)

Commonly confused words: further/farther, between/among, alternate/alternative, effect/affect

Commonly confused words: its/it’s, free/freely, hard/hardly, as soon as/no sooner

Differences of ‘of course’, ‘certainly’, ‘surely’, ‘in fact’, ‘actually’, ‘really’

Commonly confused words: simple/simplistic, nationalist/nationalistic, historic/historical, economic/economical, electric/electrical

Expressions found in the media

Differences in terrible/terrific, horrible/horrific, awful/awesome, dreadful/dreaded

Regular & irregular verb forms (hang, lie, shine, get, prove, fit, dive)

Use of ‘every’, ‘each’, ‘all’, ‘both’, ‘either’

Use of possessive forms

Use of ‘grateful’, ‘thankful’, ‘during’, ‘later’, ‘there is/are’, ‘it’, ‘too’, ‘enough’, ‘specially’, ‘especially’

Use of ‘reject’, ‘refuse’, ‘decline’, ‘deny’, ‘turn down’

Commonly confused words: illicit/elicit, illusive/elusive, contemptuous/contemptible, continuous/continual, sensible/sensitive, comprehensive/comprehensible, involved, concerned, affected, resolve

Differences of ‘finally’, ‘at last’, ‘last’, ‘lastly’, ‘in the end’, ‘at the end’, ‘eventually’, ‘ultimately’

සම්ප්‍රදායික යෙදුම් - Idiomatic expressions

Idioms with ‘ride’ (‘garden’, ‘wool’, ‘free’)

Expressions with ‘face’

Transcription of speech (gotta, gonna, wanna, helluva, gimme, lemme, gotcha…)

Idioms with ‘wall’

Expressions with different meanings (hit, mind, heels, lie/lay) 

Idioms with ‘red’

Idioms with parts of the body (arm/leg, nose, feet, hair, eye, fingers, head, shoulder, heart, head/tail)


Idioms with ‘cake’

Some catchy idioms

තියුණු ප්‍රකාශ - Sharp Remarks  
Insulting language

Talking about the undesirable

Talking about the very bad

උච්චාරණයේ අක්‍රමිකතා - Irregularities in Pronunciation
Silent letters

Pronunciation of some words of French origin

Silent Letters? ඒ මොකටද?                
Silent letters in some words of French origin

ලිවීමේදී වැදගත් වන කරුණු - Tips for Writing  

Words ending in ‘-ce’/‘-se’

Punctuation marks

Quotation marks & punctuation

Where to use upper-case letters

ශ්‍රී ලාංකික ඉංග්‍රීසි වික්‍රම - Sri Lankans in Action

Dr. Dayan Jayathilleke & Dr. Rajiva Wijesinge at UNHCR Headquarters

Kumar Sangakkara at Lord’s

භාෂාවක් ඉගෙනීම - Learning a Language

Using the media to improve one’s English

Polyglot Luca Lampariello’s steps to learn a language

Prof. Alexander Arguelles on language-learning methodologies

Prof. Alexander Arguelles on types of language courses

Websites for learners of English

How long does it take to learn a language?

Using the website LingQ to learn English

ඊපොත ගැන - About the Ebook

All ‘Ingirisi’ articles in a downloadable ebook

A new format of the ebook

All ‘Ingirisi’ & ‘Say It Out Loud’ articles in one ebook

 Image credit: David Goehring

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